A project is a group of activities that produces a unique product or service with a measurable goal. It has a defined start and finish. Project management is the application of tools and techniques to organize the project activities to successfully meet the project goal. A project manager manages these activities.
A project manager needs not only technical knowledge of the product or service being produced by the project, but also a wide range of general management skills. Key general management skills include leadership, communication, problem solving, negotiation, organization, and time management.
Projects have life cycles that are composed of multiple phases. Applying tools and techniques from process groups completes these phases. The five process groups defined by the Guide to the PMBOK are Initiation, Planning, Executing, Controlling, and Closing. The type of organizational structure impacts how projects are managed and staffed. The primary structures are functional, matrix, and projectized. The traditional departmental hierarchy in a functional organization provides the project manager with the least authority. The other end of the spectrum is the projectized organization, where resources are organized around projects, and the project manager has the authority to take action and make decisions regarding the project. The matrix organization is a middle ground between the functional and the projectized organization.
The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), with its distinct phases of Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation and Operations and Support augments the overall project planning elements. In a new software development project, for example, not only would you utilize highquality project planning principles, but you’d mesh them with the elements of SDLC so you’re assured that the system you’re delivering is adequate and correct for the requestors